Malaysian Hospitals on the web: A multi-criteria assessment of official websites


  • Demetrios Sarantis United Nations University Operating Unit on Policy-Driven Electronic Governance, Guimarães, Portugal
  • Ronald Musizvingoza UNU International Institute for Global Health (UNU-IIGH), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Masilamany Shameeta UNU International Institute for Global Health (UNU-IIGH), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Delfina Soares United Nations University Operating Unit on Policy-Driven Electronic Governance, Guimarães, Portugal
  • Joana Carvalho United Nations University Operating Unit on Policy-Driven Electronic Governance, Guimarães, Portugal


assessment, evaluation, health, hospital, website


This study thoroughly examines and assesses hospital websites in Malaysia according to a predefined list of indicators and sub-indicators, based on four criteria: Technology Features, Content, Services, and Community Interaction, as defined in the Health Sector Website Assessment Index (HSWAI). A total of 107 Malaysia hospitals were assessed. Private and university hospitals outperform public ones, especially in online appointment management and patient care automation areas. Most hospital websites perform well in the technology features criterion and satisfactorily on content, but show shortcomings in accessibility, reliability, research and teaching, participation, and community interaction elements, and most of them fall short in quality metrics data. Malaysian hospitals should adopt best practices to improve their websites concerning accessibility, reliability, services, and community interaction. The website design should endeavour to include multiple stakeholders, considering people with disabilities, in line with the sustainable development goals of leaving no one behind. Additionally, websites should ensure the dissemination of evidence-based information while taking advantage of social media to reach a wider audience.


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How to Cite

Sarantis, D., Musizvingoza, R., Shameeta, M., Soares, D., & Carvalho, J. (2024). Malaysian Hospitals on the web: A multi-criteria assessment of official websites. International Journal of Health Sciences, 8(2), 129–144.



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