https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/issue/feed International journal of life sciences 2020-06-06T05:48:20+00:00 V. Besada ijls@utm.edu.ec Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>IJLS</strong>&nbsp;is published in English and it is open to authors around the world regardless of the nationality. It is currently published three times a year, i.e. in&nbsp;<em>April</em>,&nbsp;<em>August</em>, and&nbsp;<em>December</em>.<br>e-ISSN: 2550-6986, p-ISSN: 2550-6994</p> https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/386 Social implications of biomass-based energy generation in the technical university of Manabí, Ecuador 2020-06-06T05:48:20+00:00 Carlos Alejandro Bowen Quiroz cabowen@utm.edu.ec María Rodríguez Gámez mariarodriguez@utm.edu.ec Ciaddys Gina Rodriguez Borges rodriguezciaddy@gmail.com Jesús Alberto Pérez Rodríguez jesusperez@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Biomass as an energy source will play a fundamental role in the coming years. The versatility of biomass-based generation systems makes them attractive projects at any scale. At the Technical University of Manabí, large quantities of organic and forest residues are generated, which can be used to generate energy. A survey was applied to determine the level of knowledge of the university community on issues related to the energy use of biomass and solid waste management. The results show that there is a knowledge gap in the community and it will be necessary, if such a system is implemented, to train all those involved in the generation, handling and disposal of solid waste to strengthen the proposal.</p> 2020-02-02T06:55:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/385 Institutional development of coconut agribusiness in North Sulawesi Province 2020-06-06T05:48:20+00:00 Stella Maria Pingkan Paendong stella_paendong@yahoo.com Made Antara antara_unud@yahoo.com Ketut Budi Susrusa kbsusrusa@gmail.com I Ketut Suamba suamba_unud@yahoo.co.id <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions and institutional role of coconut agribusiness in North Sulawesi; formulate a strategy model for institutional development of coconut agribusiness in North Sulawesi Province. The study was conducted in the highest coconut producing area in North Sulawesi with qualitative methods supported by quantitative data through the use of Structural Conduct Performance (SCP) analysis and Interpretative Structural Modeling analysis. The technique for determining informants is purposive sampling. The grand theory in this research is institutional theory and agribusiness theory. The coconut agribusiness institution in North Sulawesi identified several types that play a role, namely: farmer groups, transportation businesses, universities, banks, cooperatives, field extension workers (ppl), collectors, middlemen, industries, wholesalers and village regulations. Strategies and programs for developing coconut agribusiness institutions in North Sulawesi that refer to the role of tertiary institutions as key sub-elements of the institutional elements involved: a. Training for farmers and institutions involved in coconut agribusiness; b. Provision of experts in running a coconut agribusiness business unit; c. Assistance in each coconut agribusiness business unit.</p> 2020-02-02T10:12:18+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/373 The effect of giving betel leaf extract (piper betel l.) on the production and quality of broiler carcasses 2020-06-06T05:48:19+00:00 Ermelia Maria F. R. Lodang ermeliarambu27@gmail.com Gusti Ayu Mayani Kristina Dewi kristinadewi@unud.ac.id I Made Nuriyasa madenuriyasa@unud.ac.id <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to learn the effect of giving betel leaf extract (<em>Piper Betel</em> L.) on the production and quality of broiler carcasses. The experiment design used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three treatments and ten replicates, with two broiler aged 2 weeks. The treatments were broiler chicken given drinking water without of betel leaf extract as control (A), broiler gave 2% extract of betel leaf water through drinking water (B), and broiler gave a 4% extract of betel leaf water through drinking water (C). The variables observed in this study were performance, digestibility of nutrients, total stool bacteria. The results showed that the granting extract of betel leaf through drinking water showed no significantly different (P&gt;0,05) on ration consumption, drinking water consumption, body weight gain, <em>Feed Conversion Ratio</em> (FCR), body initial weight, final weight, percentage carcass, percentage meat, percentage fat and skin, bone weight, meat born to, digestibility of dry matter, digestibility of protein and digestibility of energy but significant difference (P&lt; 0.05) of carcass weight, <em>Total Plate Count (</em>TPC<em>), coliform,</em> and<em> E.Coly</em>.</p> 2020-02-04T03:29:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/387 Agribusiness development model for strengthening the chili-tobacco intercropping farmer group 2020-06-06T05:48:19+00:00 I Nengah Surata Adnyana surataadnyana@gmail.com Dwi Putra Darmawan dwiputradarmawan@yahoo.com I Wayan Windia wayanwindia@ymail.com I Ketut Suamba suamba_unud@yahoo.co.id <p style="text-align: justify;">The objectives of this study are (1) to analyze the influence of the procurement and distribution subsystems of production facilities for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; (2) analyzing the influence of farming subsystems for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; (3) analyzing the effect of post-harvest handling and further processing subsystems for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; (4) analyze the effect of the yield marketing subsystem to strengthen the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; (5) analyzing the effect of supporting services subsystems for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in Bali Province; and (6) designing an agribusiness system development model that is suitable for strengthening the Chili-Tobacco Inter-cropping Farmer Group in the Province of Bali. The methodology uses Smart PLS analysis and the SAST (Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing) method in determining the implementation of activity level needs for farmer groups.</p> 2020-02-07T07:45:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/390 Growth-development peculiarities of some rare and endangered plants in nature and culture 2020-06-06T05:48:18+00:00 Tamar Nadiradze tamar.nadiradze@tesau.edu.ge <p style="text-align: justify;">The article covers information on the following species of rare endemic and relict plants of the narrow local area that are included in the “Red Data” book of Georgia:&nbsp; <em>Taxus baccata</em> L.<em>,</em><em> Pinus pityusa</em> Stev.,, &nbsp;<em>Acer ibericum</em> M. Bieb.,, <em>Betula litwinowii</em> Doluch., <em>Berberis iberica</em> Stev. &amp; Fisch.ex DC., <em>Ostrya carpinifolia</em> Scop., <em>Diospyros lotus</em> L., <em>Quercus dshorochensis</em> K.Koch., <em>Q. Hartwissiana</em> Steven., <em>Q.imericna</em> Steven ex Woronow, <em>Q.macranthera</em> Fisch. &amp; C.A.Mey.ex Hohen, <em>Pterocarya pterocarpa</em> (Michx) kunth., <em>Punica granatum</em> L., <em>Amygdalus Georgia </em>Desf., <em>Pyrus sachokiana</em> Kuth., <em>Populus euphratica</em> Oliv, <em>Ulmus suberosa </em>Michx., <em>Zelkova carpinifolia</em> (Pall.,) K.Koch. Their biological peculiarities, duration of flowering and fruit-bearing, the similarity of seeds and their quality have been studied under the conditions of arid zone. The paper also gives a description of cambiogenetic growth nature that is a secondary meristem of 1-3-year-old spurs of these plants from the beginning till the end of their vegetation.</p> 2020-02-08T11:19:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/392 Cocoa drying system using ancestral sliding 2020-06-06T05:48:18+00:00 Ingri Catherine García Castro itspem.igarcia1061@gmail.com Telly Yarita Macías Zambrano itspem.tmacias@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">The decrease in the application of ancestral practices such as the drying of cocoa in traditional slides is a problem that affects small grain producers in terms of the price of the product, which is mostly sold in slime. It is intended to design an ancestral slide for cocoa drying so that ancestral knowledge of cocoa drying is recovered by promoting a fair price for cocoa that benefited for small producers. An experimental field methodology was applied. Results were obtained in 24 hours of drying light 7% humidity at an average temperature of 34º C, a parameter that allows preserving the quality of the grain during storage and without risk of deterioration due to the appearance of fungi. A solar-powered dryer was traditionally called slides used by small producers of cocoa in the province, where they can use materials from their environment and obtaining a dryer with a capacity, drying hours and percentage of humidity similar to the use of a dryer with conventional energy, without paying for the grain drying service in an industrial dryer.</p> 2020-02-10T07:32:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/380 Consumption, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in pe goats received ransum with various levels of gamal (gliricidiasepium) balance versus concentrate 2020-06-06T05:48:17+00:00 Muh. Sofyan muhsofyandompu@gmail.com I Gusti Lanang Oka Cakra oka_cakra@unud.ac.id I Gusti Agung Arta Putra artaputra@unud.ac.id <p style="text-align: justify;">The research aims to determine the consumption, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in PE goats, which has been carried out in Sidemen Village, Karangasem, Bali and in the Lab. Animal Nutrition and Feed at Udayana University. The research design used was the Latin Square Design (LSD) with treatment consisting of (P1) 55% field grass with 45% concentrate; (P2) 55% field grass with 15% Gamal and 30% concentrate; (P3) 55% field grass with 30% Gamal and 15% concentrate; (P4) 55% field grass with 45% Gamal. Research variables include consumption, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention. The results showed the consumption of dry matter and crude protein between treatments was not significantly different (P&gt; 0.05). Crude fiber consumption of P4 treatment was significantly (P &lt;0.05) higher than P1, but P4 was not significant (P&gt; 0.05) higher than P2 and P3. The dry matter digestibility coefficient and crude fiber digestibility coefficient between treatments were statistically significantly different (P&gt; 0.05). The digestibility coefficient of organic matter, crude protein digestion coefficient and nitrogen retention in the P1 treatment were not significantly (P&gt; 0.05) higher than P2, but P1 was significantly (P &lt;0.05) higher than P3 and P4.</p> 2020-02-10T08:12:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/393 The properties of tagua bark (brutelephas aequatoriales spruce) for producing traditional salprieta 2020-06-06T05:48:17+00:00 Luisana Agustina De La Cruz Zambrano luisanadelacruz05@gmail.com Gisselle Yaritza Moreira Espinoza gissella2409moreira@gmail.com Stefania Lilibeth Mendoza Meza stefaniameza94@gmail.com Verónica Dolores Palma Mendoza itspem.vpalma@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Manabí is a province rich in cultural traditions. Its cuisine makes it a province visited by national and foreign tourists. The salprieta is one of the delicacies that identify the province, however the tradition of making salprieta is being lost, that made with tagua that despite not being so widespread became a typical dish of the areas where the crop del Cade constituted the economic support of its inhabitants (Chone, Calceta, Junín, San Plácido, Paján and Jipijapa), because from this plant many by-products are obtained such as the cade used for the construction of roofs of houses and agricultural constructions; the tagua, for the elaboration of crafts, and the bark of this one is used for food of the cattle in the form of flour; and for the elaboration of salprieta in replacement of the corn. The research problem is centered on the loss of ancestral knowledge in the peasant communities to elaborate salprieta using an available resource such as the tagua bark, available raw material that is not used due to ignorance, whose nutritional properties are excellent, as we indicate the tables attached to the document.</p> 2020-02-12T12:26:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/379 The effect of concentrate replacement level with gamal leaf (gliricidia sepium) in ransum on rument metabolite products and blood goat profile 2020-06-06T05:48:16+00:00 Sigit Perdana perdansigit05@gmail.com I Gusti Lanang Oka Cakra oka_cakra@unud.ac.id I Gede Mahardika mahardikagede@yahoo.com <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to determine the effect of replacing concentrates with Gamal leaves (Gliricidia sepium) in the ration on the product and the performance of rumen metabolites and the blood profile of PE goats. The experimental design used was the Latin square design, 4 x 4 that is 4 treatments with four 4 replications each experiment unit consisted of 1 animal. One treatment period for 2 weeks. The first week was adapted and the second week the data collection process was carried out. The treatment given is as follows. The treatments are A (45% concentrate and 55% field grass); B (Gamal 15% with 30% concentrate and 55% field grass); C (Gamal 30% with 15% concentrate and 55% field grass); D (Gamal 45% and field grass 55%). The results of this study indicate that the effect of the rate of replacement of concentrates with Gamal leaves (Gliricidia sepium) in the ration on rumen metabolite products PE goat was significantly different (P &lt;0.05) total VFA concentration and VFA Parcial. The concentration of N-NH3, protozoan population the acidity of pH, methane production showed results that were not significantly different.</p> 2020-02-13T05:44:47+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/394 Traditional knowledge using medicinal plants in Portoviejo Canton 2020-06-06T05:48:16+00:00 Valeria Briggete Baque Anchundia valerybaque8@gmail.com Víctor Manuel Anchundia Mendoza victoranchunzam00@gmail.com María Andreina Cevallos Piloso andreinacevallospiloso@gmail.com Milton Manuel Vega Játiva itspem.mvega@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">The problem centers on the loss of empirical knowledge of the use of medicinal plants as a source of alternative medicine. The objective of the work is to carry out a study aimed at establishing the current state of local knowledge about the use of medicinal plants in rural parishes and 1 urban one of the Portoviejo canton. The method was based on the literature review on the subject and as techniques, the population survey was used on the knowledge and importance of medicinal plants. The main results of the research included the recovery of the use of medicinal plants as an alternative medicine use. As a result, it was obtained that the inhabitants of these parishes of average age between 35-59 years, had a high impact on the applied surveys of 39.1% of the use of medicinal plants and that the lowest ignorance of the use of medicinal plants as an alternative in medicine it was obtained by people of average age between 60 and over, but this is due to memory loss. It is concluded that knowledge about medicinal plants is regular since their inhabitants do not maintain continuity in their use.</p> 2020-02-13T09:39:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/407 Antioxidant capacity profile of dewandaru leaf (extract eugenia uniflora l.): part of usadha Bali 2020-06-06T05:48:15+00:00 Puguh Santoso p.santoso@unmas.ac.id Ni Luh Kade Arman Anita Dewi armannita@yahoo.com Agus Adrianta agusaick@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">Bali has around 50,000 usadha palm oil which is a source of untreated herbal medicine. One of the plants that have the potential as an antioxidant and is traditionally used by the community is Dewandaru (Eugenia uniflora L.) plant. Dewandaru containing tannins, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. Dewandaru plants have antibacterial activity, antioxidants, and antidotes to free radicals.&nbsp; Making extract with six different solvents, among them methanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. The measurements were taken of the reduction of free radical activity by observing the absorbance at the maximum wavelength with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer alternately on the six samples. Secondary metabolites contained in Dewandaru leaves, namely flavonoids, tannins, and quinones. The value obtained is IC50 methanol extract 5,857 ppm; n-butanol extract 8,893 ppm; ethyl acetate extract 15,203 ppm; n-hexane extract 162.7315 ppm; and chloroform extract 75,873 ppm. Methanol extract, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate have very strong antioxidant activity because &lt;50 ppm; n-hexane extract has weak antioxidant activity (ranging from 150-200 ppm), and chloroform extract has strong antioxidant activity (ranging from 50-100 ppm). Major conclusions: Dewandaru leaves has the potential as a natural antioxidant in the treatment section of Usadha Bali.</p> 2020-03-22T11:09:02+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/417 The compatibility of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with corn and sorghum plant in the dry land of Central Lombok 2020-06-06T05:48:15+00:00 Sukmawati Sukmawati sukmawatinw69@gmail.com I Made Adnyana sukmawatinw69@gmail.com Dewa Ngurah Suprapta sukmawatinw69@gmail.com Meitini Wahyuni Proborini sukmawatinw69@gmail.com <p style="text-align: justify;">The research aims to promote AMF compatibility on corn and sorghum host plants in the dry land of central Lombok. The study was conducted using a complete random design factorial, with 2 factors, factor 1. Isolate type with 4 levels i.e. I0 = without isolates, I1 = Ash isolates, I2 = isolate black and I3 = isolate mixture of ash and black. Factor 2 is the type of host with 2 levels is M1 = host corn and M2 = host sorghum. The results showed that there was a noticeable influence on the host type factor on the high measurement parameters of plants, the number of leaves and the broad index of leaves. There is an increase in soil nutrient levels, especially nutrient levels C and P. Spores density increased significantly from 50 spores inoculated into thousands of spores at the end of research with an effective and superior spore namely the Genus Gigaspora.</p> 2020-04-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://sciencescholar.us/journal/index.php/ijls/article/view/418 Sustainable development model of subak in Denpasar City 2020-06-06T05:48:14+00:00 Putu Udayani Wijayanti putuudayani@unud.ac.id Wayan Windia putuudayani@unud.ac.id Dwi Putra Darmawan putuudayani@unud.ac.id Widhianthini Widhianthini putuudayani@unud.ac.id <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Subak</em> is a unique irrigation system in Bali that is based on Hinduism and the philosophy of <em>tri hita karana</em> that consists of elements of <em>parhyangan, pawongan, and palemahan,</em> are three balances and harmonies that are still maintained for sustainability. This study aims to identify changes in four dimensions of <em>subak</em>, which may threaten its sustainability in the city of Denpasar; identify the most sensitive dimension that influences the sustainability of <em>subak</em> in Denpasar; as well as formulate a development model of <em>subak</em> that will ensure its sustainability in Denpasar. Based on MDS analysis on the changes of different dimensions of <em>subak</em> that threaten its sustainability in Denpasar, it is known that the “dimension of mindset” is the most sensitive in processes of sustainability of subak. Sensitivity in this context relates to the awareness of the importance of farmer's mindset as a variable to ensure the sustainability of subak, considering the mindset of farmers will determine the success of sustainability processes on existing land management. Following that result, ISM analysis was done to formulate a development model for the sustainability of <em>subak</em>.&nbsp;</p> 2020-04-15T09:27:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##