Effect of cod liver oil supplementation in commercial feed on reproductive organs weight and ovarian follicles size of local rabbits
Keywords:cod liver oil, fatty acid, local rabbit, ovary, reproduction
This study aimed to determine the effect of cod liver oil supplementation in commercial feed on reproductive organs weight and ovarian follicles size of local rabbits. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design with four feed treatments, i.e. commercial feed without supplementation of cod liver oil (CLO) as control (P0), commercial feed supplemented by 3% CLO (P1), 4.5% CLO (P2), and 6% CLO (P3). Each treatment consisted of ten rabbits as replication and treatment were given to rabbits from aged 4 to 6 months. The parameters observed were the weight of the reproductive organs, namely the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and the size of the ovarian follicles, namely primary, secondary, tertiary and preovulatory follicles of local rabbits. The results showed that various levels of cod liver oil supplementation in commercial feed differed significantly (P<0.05) to the weight of the reproductive organs and the size of the ovarian follicles of local rabbits. It can be concluded that cod liver oil supplementation at 4.5% level in commercial feed capable increase the reproductive organs weight and ovarian follicles size of local rabbits.
Abayasekara, D. R. E., & Wathes, D. C. (1999). Effects of altering dietary fatty acid composition on prostaglandin synthesis and fertility. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), 61(5), 275-287. https://doi.org/10.1054/plef.1999.0101
Adibmoradi, M., Najafi, M. H., Zeinoaldini, S., Ganjkhanlou, M., & Yousefi, A. R. (2012). Effect of dietary soybean oil and fish oil supplementation on blood metabolites and testis development of male growing kids. Egyptian Journal of Sheep and Goat Sciences, 65(1240), 1-15.
Alturkistani, H. A., Tashkandi, F. M., & Mohammedsaleh, Z. M. (2016). Histological stains: a literature review and case study. Global journal of health science, 8(3), 72. https://dx.doi.org/10.5539%2Fgjhs.v8n3p72
Amira, A.K., Zuki, Abu, B., Goh, Y.M., & Noordin, M.M. (2011). Effect of n-3andn-6fatty acid supplementation on fetal, gestation and parturition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 10, 7109-7116.
Balthazart, J., Cornil, C. A., Charlier, T. D., Taziaux, M., & Ball, G. F. (2009). Estradiol, a key endocrine signal in the sexual differentiation and activation of reproductive behavior in quail. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology, 311(5), 323-345. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.464
Bellows, R. A., Grings, E. E., Simms, D. D., Geary, T. W., & Bergman, J. W. (2001). Effects of feeding supplemental fat during gestation to first-calf beef heifers. The Professional Animal Scientist, 17(2), 81-89. https://doi.org/10.15232/S1080-7446(15)31602-8
Berbar, A., Belabbas, R., Theau-Clement, M., Bolet, G., Brown, P. J., & Kaidi, R. (2011). A comparative study on the follicular dynamics between sexually receptive and non-receptive algerian female rabbits after mating. http://www. europeanjournalofscientificresearch. com/.
Bilby, T. R., Block, J., Do Amaral, B. C., Sa Filho, O., Silvestre, F. T., Hansen, P. J., ... & Thatcher, W. W. (2006). Effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids on oocyte quality and follicular development in lactating dairy cows in summer. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(10), 3891-3903. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72432-8
Brenna, J. T., Salem Jr, N., Sinclair, A. J., & Cunnane, S. C. (2009). ?-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes and essential fatty acids, 80(2-3), 85-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2009.01.004
Capello, V. (2005). Surgical techniques for neutering the female pet rabbit. Exotic DVM, 7(5), 15-21.
Chavatte-Palmer, P., Dupont, C., Debus, N., & Camous, S. (2014). Nutritional programming and the reproductive function of the offspring. Animal Production Science, 54(9), 1166-1176. https://doi.org/10.1071/AN14470
Chiericato, G. M., Rizzi, C., Boiti, C., & Canali, C. (2001). A study on the effect of feeding restriction on the plasma hormonal response of Grimaud prepubertal does. Rivista di Coniglicoltura (Italy).
Childs, S., Hennessy, A. A., Sreenan, J. M., Wathes, D. C., Cheng, Z., Stanton, C., ... & Kenny, D. A. (2008). Effect of level of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on systemic and tissue fatty acid concentrations and on selected reproductive variables in cattle. Theriogenology, 70(4), 595-611. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.04.002
Elkomy, A. E., & El-Speiy, M. E. (2015). Polyunsaturated fatty acids combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin to enhance reproductive performance in aged rabbit does. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 14(1), 3535. https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2015.3535
Ermayanti, N. G. A. M., Oka, I. G. L., Mahardika, I. G., & Suyadnya, I. P. (2016). Free testosterone level and quality of cauda epididymis sperm of local rabbit that given commercial feed supplemented by cod fish liver oil. International Research Journal of Engineering, IT & Scientific Research, 2(3), 1-8.
Ferguson, E. M., & Leese, H. J. (1999). Triglyceride content of bovine oocytes and early embryos. Reproduction, 116(2), 373-378. https://doi.org/10.1530/jrf.0.1160373
Fouladi-Nashta, A. A., Wonnacott, K. E., Gutierrez, C. G., Gong, J. G., Sinclair, K. D., Garnsworthy, P. C., & Webb, R. (2009). Oocyte quality in lactating dairy cows fed on high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Reproduction, 138(5), 771-781.https://doi.org/10.1530/REP-08-0391
Friedman, M. H. (1929). The mechanism of ovulation in the rabbit: I. The demonstration of a humoral mechanism. American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, 89(2), 438-442. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplegacy.19220.127.116.118
Ghaffarilaleh, V., Fouladi-Nashta, A., & Paramio, M. T. (2014). Effect of ?-linolenic acid on oocyte maturation and embryo development of prepubertal sheep oocytes. Theriogenology, 82(5), 686-696. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.05.027
Gosálvez, L. F., Alvariño, J. M. R., Estavillo, S., & Tor, M. (1994). Adelanto del inicio de la vida reproductiva de la coneja, mediante estímulo alimenticio. In XIX Simposio de cunicultura: Silleda, 27 y 28 de mayo de 1994 (pp. 149-154). Asociación Española de Cunicultura (ASESCU).
Gurr, M. I., Harwood, J. L., & Frayn, K. N. (2002). Lipid biochemistry (Vol. 409). Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Harcout-Brown, F. (2002). Textbook of Rabbit Medicine, Elsevier Health Sciences, Oxford.
Harkness, J. E., Turner, P. V., VandeWoude, S., & Wheler, C. L. (2010). Harkness and Wagner's biology and medicine of rabbits and rodents. John Wiley & Sons.
Heape, W. (1905). Ovulation and degeneration of ova in the rabbit. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character, 76(509), 260-268. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1905.0019
Hill, M., & White, W. E. (1933). The growth and regression of follicles in the oestrous rabbit. The Journal of physiology, 80(2), 174.
Howard, H. J., Scott, R. G., & Britt, J. H. (1990). Associations among progesterone, estradiol-17?, oxytocin and prostaglandin in cattle treated with hCG during diestrus to extend corpus luteum function. Prostaglandins, 40(1), 51-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-6980(90)90056-2
Hulot, F., Mariana, J. C., & Lebas, F. (1982). L'établissement de la puberté chez la lapine (Folliculogenèse et ovulation). Effet du rationnement alimentaire. Reproduction Nutrition Développement, 22(3), 439-453.
Hunzicker-Dunn, M., Jungmann, R. A., & Birnbaumer, L. (1979). Hormone action in ovarian follicles: Adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase enzyme systems. In Ovarian Follicular Development and Function (pp. 267-304). Raven Press New York.
Hutt, K. J., McLaughlin, E. A., & Holland, M. K. (2006). Primordial follicle activation and follicular development in the juvenile rabbit ovary. Cell and tissue research, 326(3), 809-822.
Kowalska, D., & Bielanski, P. (2007). Effect of dietary fish oil supplement on rearing performance of young rabbits and quality of their meat. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 57(3 [A]).
Kranzfelder, D., Korr, H., Mestwerdt, W., & Maurer-Schultze, B. (1984). Follicle growth in the ovary of the rabbit after ovulation-inducing application of human chorionic gonadotropin. Cell and tissue research, 238(3), 611-620.
Lebas, F., Coudert, P., Rouvier, R., & De Rochambeau, H. (1997). The Rabbit: husbandry, health, and production. Rome: Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations.
Lefèvre, B., & Caillol, M. (1978). Relationship of estrous behaviour with follicular growth and sex steroid concentration in the follicular fluid in the domestic rabbit. In Annales de Biologie Animale Biochimie Biophysique (Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 1435-1441). EDP Sciences.
Lucy, M. C., Staples, C. R., Michel, F. M., & Thatcher, W. W. (1991). Energy balance and size and number of ovarian follicles detected by ultrasonography in early postpartum dairy cows. Journal of dairy science, 74(2), 473-482. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78194-0
Mahla, A. S., Chaudhari, R. K., Verma, A. K., Singh, A. K., Singh, S. K., Singh, G., ... & Krishnaswamy, N. (2017). Effect of dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich fish oil on reproductive performance of the goat (Capra hircus). Theriogenology, 99, 79-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2017.05.023
Marei, W. F., Wathes, D. C., & Fouladi-Nashta, A. A. (2009). The effect of linolenic acid on bovine oocyte maturation and development. Biology of Reproduction, 81(6), 1064-1072. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.109.076851
Marongiu, M. L., & Gulinati, A. (2008). Ultrasound evaluation of ovarian follicular dynamics during early pseudopregnancy as a tool to inquire into the high progesterone (P+) syndrome of rabbit does. In Proceedings of the 9th World Rabbit Congress (pp. 393-398).
Mattos, R. S taples CR and Thatcher WW (2000) Effects of dietary fatty acids on reproduction in ruminants. Review of Reproduction, 5, 38-45.
Meshreky, S. Z., & Metry, G. H. (2000). Effect of vitamin E and/or selenium on reproductive performance of New Zealand and White Baladi black doe rabbit under climate conditions of middle Egypt. Pro. 3rd Afri. Con. Anim. Agri. 11th Con. Egyptian, 6-9.
Meshreky, S. Z., Mervat, M., Arafa, M. A., Abo, W., & Gad Alla, S. A. Z. (2007). Male and female rabbits performance traits as affected by dietary aflatoxin contamination and its detoxification. Egyptian Journal of Rabbit Science, 17(1), 2742.
Meshreky, S., & Shaheed, I. (2003). Efficiency of vitamin E and selenium administration on growth performance, puberty and anatomical and histopathological traits of female genitalia in New Zealand White rabbits. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds, 6 (Special issue), 299, 312.
Moallem, U., Shafran, A., Zachut, M., Dekel, I., Portnick, Y., & Arieli, A. (2013). Dietary ?-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance in dairy cows, similar to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil. Reproduction, 146(6), 603-614. https://doi.org/10.1530/REP-13-0244
Muzvondiwa, J. V., Kamanda, M. T., Nyamukanza, C. C., & Mutisi, C. (2011). Effect of protein and energy levels on faecal progesterone concentration in Sabi ewes during oestrus cycle. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23(5), 2011.
Nuriyasa, I. M., Puspani, E., & Yupardhi, W. S. (2018). Performance and carcass of local rabbit (Lepus nigricollis) fed concentrate on different levels based on carrot leaf waste (Daucus carota L.). International Journal of Life Sciences, 2(3), 13-19. https://doi.org/10.29332/ijls.v2n3.189
Paris, M. C. J., Andersen, C. Y., & Shaw, J. M. (2009). Ovarian cryopreservation and grafting: its potential for human reproductive biology and animal conservation. Anim Reprod, 6(1), 96-113.
Parkes, A. S. (1931). The reproductive processes of certain mammals. II.—The size of the Graafian follicle at ovulation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character, 109(761), 185-196. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1931.0076
Patterson, D. J., Perry, R. C., Kiracofe, G. H., Bellows, R. A., Staigmiller, R. B., & Corah, L. R. (1992). Management considerations in heifer development and puberty. Journal of Animal Science, 70(12), 4018-4035. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.70124018x
Petit, H. V., Dewhurst, R. J., Proulx, J. G., Khalid, M., Haresign, W., & Twagiramungu, H. (2001). Milk production, milk composition, and reproductive function of dairy cows fed different fats. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 81(2), 263-271. https://doi.org/10.4141/A00-096
Popesko, P., Rajtová, V., & Horák, J. (1990). A colour Atlas of Anatomy of small laboratory animals, Volume two: rat, mouse, golden hamster.
Rhind, S. M. (1992). Nutrition: its effects on reproductive performance and its hormonal control in female sheep and goats.
Robinson, R. S., Pushpakumara, P. G. A., Cheng, Z., Peters, A. R., Abayasekara, D. R. E., & Wathes, D. C. (2002). Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on ovarian and uterine function in lactating dairy cows. REPRODUCTION-CAMBRIDGE-, 124(1), 119-131.
Rommers, J. M., Meijerhof, R., Noordhuizen, J. P. T. M., & Kemp, B. (2010). Effect of different feeding levels during rearing and age at first insemination on body development, body composition, and puberty characteristics of rabbit does. World Rabbit Science, 9(3), 101-108.
Ross, M. H., Romrell, L. J., & Kaye, I. G. (1995). Histology: A Text and Atlas. 3'd edition. Wiiliams and Wilkins. Baltimore, Maryland, USA. pp, 636-658.
Ryan, D. P., Spoon, R. A., & Williams, G. L. (1992). Ovarian follicular characteristics, embryo recovery, and embryo viability in heifers fed high-fat diets and treated with follicle-stimulating hormone. Journal of animal science, 70(11), 3505-3513. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.70113505x
Smits, R., & Australia, R. (2010). Field evaluation of the benefits of fish oil dietary supplementation to multiparous sows fed during lactation and early pregnancy on fertility.
Spies, H. G., Francis Pau, K. Y., & Yang, S. P. (1997). Coital and estrogen signals: a contrast in the preovulatory neuroendocrine networks of rabbits and rhesus monkeys. Biology of reproduction, 56(2), 310-319. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod56.2.310
Thangavelu, G., Colazo, M. G., Ambrose, D. J., Oba, M., Okine, E. K., & Dyck, M. K. (2007). Diets enriched in unsaturated fatty acids enhance early embryonic development in lactating Holstein cows. Theriogenology, 68(7), 949-957. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.07.002
Thatcher, W. W., Staples, C. R., Danet-Desnoyers, G., Oldick, B., & Schmitt, E. P. (1994). Embryo health and mortality in sheep and cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 72(suppl_3), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.72suppl_316x
Veshkini, A., Asadi, H., Khadem, A. A., Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, A., Khazabi, S., Aminafshar, M., ... & Cinar, M. U. (2015). Effect of Linolenic acid during in vitro maturation of ovine oocytes: embryonic developmental potential and mRNA abundances of genes involved in apoptosis. Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics, 32(4), 653-659.
Wathes, D. C., Abayasekara, D. R. E., & Aitken, R. J. (2007). Polyunsaturated fatty acids in male and female reproduction. Biology of reproduction, 77(2), 190-201. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.107.060558
Wonnacott, K. E., Kwong, W. Y., Hughes, J., Salter, A. M., Lea, R. G., Garnsworthy, P. C., & Sinclair, K. D. (2010). Dietary omega-3 and-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the composition and development of sheep granulosa cells, oocytes and embryos. Reproduction, 139(1), 57.
Zeleznik, A. J., Leung, P. C. K., & Adashi, E. Y. (2004). The Ovary.
Zeron, Y., Sklan, D., & Arav, A. (2002). Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on biophysical parameters and chilling sensitivity of ewe oocytes. Molecular reproduction and development, 61(2), 271-278. https://doi.org/10.1002/mrd.1156
Žitný, J., Massányi, P., Trakovická, A., Rafaj, J., & Toman, R. (2004). Quantification of the ovarian follicular growth in rabbits. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy, 48, 37-40.
How to Cite
Articles published in the International Journal of Life Sciences (IJLS) are available under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Authors retain copyright in their work and grant IJLS right of first publication under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in this journal, and to use them for any other lawful purpose.
Articles published in IJLS can be copied, communicated and shared in their published form for non-commercial purposes provided full attribution is given to the author and the journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
This copyright notice applies to articles published in IJLS volumes 4 onwards. Please read about the copyright notices for previous volumes under Journal History.