Clinical-functional and morphological parameters of purulonecrotic foci healing in diabetic foot syndrome using programmable sanitation technologies


  • Vladimir A. Sergeev Orel State University named after I.S. Turgenev, Orel, Russian Federation
  • Alexander A. Glukhov Voronezh State Medical University named after N.N. Burdenko, Voronezh, Russian Federation
  • Alexander S. Sorokin Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • Sergey A. Zhuchkov Orel State University named after I.S. Turgenev, Orel, Russian Federation
  • Alexander V. Gorokhov Orel State University named after I.S. Turgenev, Orel, Russian Federation
  • Elena N. Troshkina Orel Cancer Dispensary, Oryol, Russian Federation


complications, cytological examination, diabetes mellitus, health care, patients, reparative process


Diabetes mellitus is currently characterised by a high progressive prevalence of patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical, functional, and morphological parameters of purulonecrotic foci healing in diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) using programmable sanitation technologies. The patients were randomised into two groups. In the comparison group (n=51), patients received conventional local treatment after surgery. In the main group (n=55), after surgical treatment, the wound was sutured, and in the postsurgical period, programmable sanitation was conducted using the AMP-01 device. The cytological smears of the main group identified a higher rate of cellular reactions in the wound. There was a 1.3-fold reduction in the duration of hospitalisation, the number of purulent complications was significantly less (p=0.014). It was possible to preserve the supporting function of the foot in patients of the main group in a larger percentage of cases (p=0.023). There was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of high amputations in the comparison group (p=0.026). As a result, the effectiveness of the use of programmable sanitation technologies for purulent lesions of the diabetic foot has been proven.


Download data is not yet available.


Armstrong, D. G., Boulton, A. J., & Bus, S. A. (2017). Diabetic foot ulcers and their recurrence. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(24), 2367-2375.

Bakker, K., Apelqvist, J., Lipsky, B. A., Van Netten, J. J., Schaper, N. C., & International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF). (2016). The 2015 IWGDF guidance documents on prevention and management of foot problems in diabetes: development of an evidence?based global consensus. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews, 32, 2-6.

Baltzis, D., Eleftheriadou, I., & Veves, A. (2014). Pathogenesis and treatment of impaired wound healing in diabetes mellitus: new insights. Advances in therapy, 31(8), 817-836.

Berezin, A. E. (2017). Endothelial progenitor cells dysfunction and impaired tissue reparation: the missed link in diabetes mellitus development. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 11(3), 215-220.

Bordianu, A., Bobirc?, F., & P?tra?cu, T. (2018). Skin Grafting in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Soft Tissue Defects. Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania: 1990), 113(5), 644-650.

Brancato, S. K., & Albina, J. E. (2011). Wound macrophages as key regulators of repair: origin, phenotype, and function. The American journal of pathology, 178(1), 19-25.

Braun, L. R., Fisk, W. A., Lev-Tov, H., Kirsner, R. S., & Isseroff, R. R. (2014). Diabetic foot ulcer: an evidence-based treatment update. American journal of clinical dermatology, 15(3), 267-281.

Carchi, J. A. Y. ., Catagua, T. C. M. ., Rivera, D. G. B. ., Mera, V. B. ., & Rosario, M. del . (2021). From beginner to expert, experience of the rotating nursing intern in pre-professional practice. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(2), 111-117.

Ceriello, A. (2006). Oxidative stress and diabetes-associated complications. Endocrine Practice, 12, 60-62.

Cosson, E., Benchimol, M., Carbillon, L., Pharisien, I., Pariès, J., Valensi, P., ... & Attali, J. R. (2006). Universal rather than selective screening for gestational diabetes mellitus may improve fetal outcomes. Diabetes & metabolism, 32(2), 140-146.

Davydov, I. A., Larichev, A. B., & Abramov, A. I. (1990). Substantiation of using forced early secondary suture in the treatment of suppurative wounds by the method of vacuum therapy. Vestnik khirurgii imeni II Grekova, 144(3), 126-128.

Dedov, I. I., Shestakova, M. V., & Vikulova, O. K. (2017). Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Russian Federation: clinical and statistical report according to the federal diabetes registry. Diabetes mellitus, 20(1), 13-41.

Dinh, T., Tecilazich, F., Kafanas, A., Doupis, J., Gnardellis, C., Leal, E., ... & Veves, A. (2012). Mechanisms involved in the development and healing of diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetes, 61(11), 2937-2947.

Duzgun, A. P., Sat?r, H. Z., Ozozan, O., Saylam, B., Kulah, B., & Coskun, F. (2008). Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on healing of diabetic foot ulcers. The Journal of foot and ankle surgery, 47(6), 515-519.

Eskes, A. M., Gerbens, L. A., van der Horst, C. M., Vermeulen, H., & Ubbink, D. T. (2011). Is the red-yellow-black scheme suitable to classify donor site wounds? An inter-observer analysis. Burns, 37(5), 823-827.

Falanga, V. (2005). Wound healing and its impairment in the diabetic foot. The Lancet, 366(9498), 1736-1743.

Galstyan, G. R., Vikulova, O. K., Isakov, M. A., Zheleznyakova, A. V., Serkov, A. A., & Egorova, D. N. (2018). Epidemiology of diabetic foot syndrome and lower limb amputations in the Russian Federation according to the Federal Register of Diabetes Patients in 2013–2016. Sakharny Diabet, 21(3), 170-7.

Guariguata, L., Whiting, D., Weil, C., & Unwin, N. (2011). The International Diabetes Federation diabetes atlas methodology for estimating global and national prevalence of diabetes in adults. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 94(3), 322-332.

Han, T., Wang, H., & Zang, Y. Q. (2012). Combining platelet-rich plasma and extracellular matrix-derived peptides promote impaired cutaneous wound healing in vivo. J Craniofac Surg, 23(2), 439.

Heer, R., Shrimankar, J., & Griffith, C. D. M. (2003). Granulomatous mastitis can mimic breast cancer on clinical, radiological or cytological examination: a cautionary tale. The breast, 12(4), 283-286.

Hong, S., Lu, Y., Tian, H., Alapure, B. V., Wang, Q., Bunnell, B. A., & Laborde, J. M. (2014). Maresin-like lipid mediators are produced by leukocytes and platelets and rescue reparative function of diabetes-impaired macrophages. Chemistry & biology, 21(10), 1318-1329.

Ivanov, D.P., Serebryakova, O.V., & Ivanov, P.A. (2019). Instrumental Research Methods In Diagnostics Of Ischemic Form Of Diabetic Foot Syndrome. Transbaikal Medical Bulletin , (2), 126-138.

Ivanusa, S. Y., Risman, B. V., & Ivanov, G. G. (2016). Modern ideas about methods of assessment the course of the wound process in patients with purulo-necrotic complications of the diabetic foot syndrome. Herald of the Russian Military Medical Academy= Vestnik rossijskoj voennoj medicinskoj akademii, 54, 190-194.

Jang, M. Y., Hong, J. P., Bordianu, A., & Suh, H. S. (2015). Using a contradictory approach to treat a wound induced by hematoma in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome using negative pressure wound therapy: lessons learnt. The international journal of lower extremity wounds, 14(3), 303-306.

Kaem, R. I., & Karlov, V. A. (1977). The morphology of a purulent wound closed by a suture. In Proceedings of the I All-Union Conference on Wounds and Wound Infections. Moscow: Medicina (pp. 7-8).

Kamayev, M.F. (1954). Types of cytograms in a superficial biopsy of the wound. In: Collection of works of the Odessa Medical Institute named after N. I. Pirogov, (pp. 267-276). Kyiv: Odessa Medical Institute named after N. I. Pirogov.

Koziel, H., & Koziel, M. J. (1995). Pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus: pneumonia. Infectious disease clinics of North America, 9(1), 65-96.

Kurtieva, S., Nazarova, J., & Mullajonov, H. (2021). Features of endocrine and immune status in adolescents with vegetative dystonia syndrome. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(2), 118-127.

Kuzin, M. I., & Kostyuchenok, B. M. (1990). Wounds and wound infection. Meditsina, Moscow, 169.

Lacci, K. M., & Dardik, A. (2010). Platelet-rich plasma: support for its use in wound healing. The Yale journal of biology and medicine, 83(1), 1.

Larichev, A.B., Shishlo, V.K., Lisovskiy, A.V., & Chistyakov, A.L. (2011). Wound infection prevention and morphological aspects of aseptic wound healing. Journal of experimental and clinical surgery , 4 (4), 728-733.

Li, Z., Guo, S., Yao, F., Zhang, Y., & Li, T. (2013). Increased ratio of serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 against TIMP-1 predicts poor wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 27(4), 380-382.

Liu, Y., Min, D., Bolton, T., Nubé, V., Twigg, S. M., Yue, D. K., & McLennan, S. V. (2009). Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 predicts poor wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes care, 32(1), 117-119.

Mann, H. B., & Whitney, D. R. (1947). On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. The annals of mathematical statistics, 50-60.

Mitish, V. A., Paskhalova, Y. S., & Eroshkin, I. A. (2014). Purulent necrotic lesions in the neuroischemic form of diabetic foot syndrome. Surgery. Magazine them. NI Pirogov, 1, 48-53.

Nemec, A., Dijkshoorn, L., Cleenwerck, I., De Baere, T., Janssens, D., van der Reijden, T. J., ... & Vaneechoutte, M. (2003). Acinetobacter parvus sp. nov., a small-colony-forming species isolated from human clinical specimens. International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 53(5), 1563-1567.

Nickerson, S. (2018). Improving outcomes in recurrent and other new foot ulcers after healed plantar forefoot diabetic ulcer. Wound repair and regeneration: official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society, 26(1), 108-109.

Ray, J. A., Valentine, W. J., Secnik, K., Oglesby, A. K., Cordony, A., Gordois, A., ... & Palmer, A. J. (2005). Review of the cost of diabetes complications in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. Current medical research and opinion, 21(10), 1617-1629.

Romano, G., Moretti, G., Di Benedetto, A., Giofre, C., Di Cesare, E., Russo, G., ... & Cucinotta, D. (1998). Skin lesions in diabetes mellitus: prevalence and clinical correlations. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 39(2), 101-106.

Sergeev, V.A. (2018). Utility model patent No. 176572. Device for pumping and suction of liquid.

Sergeev, VA, & Glukhov, AA (2020). Vascular medicine. Journal of Vascular Medicine , 17 (3), 13-17.

Stupin, V. A., Silina, E. V., Koreyba, K. A., & Goryunov, S. V. (2019). Diabetic foot syndrome (epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment). M.: Litterra.

Tareef, A., Song, Y., Huang, H., Wang, Y., Feng, D., Chen, M., & Cai, W. (2017). Optimizing the cervix cytological examination based on deep learning and dynamic shape modeling. Neurocomputing, 248, 28-40.

Wagner, F. W. (1979). A classification and treatment program for diabetic, neuropathic, and dysvascular foot problems. Instr Course Lect, 28(1), 143-65.

Wilcoxon, F. (1947). Probability tables for individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biometrics, 3(3), 119-122.

Widana, I.K., Sumetri, N.W., Sutapa, I.K., Suryasa, W. (2021). Anthropometric measures for better cardiovascular and musculoskeletal health. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 29(3), 550–561.

Yusupova, S., Nabiyev, M.K. & Saykhunov, K.D. (2017). Comparative analysis of the results of a comprehensive operative-medical treatment of patients with complicated forms of diabetic foot syndrome. Bulletin of Avicenna, 19(2), 203-208.

Zaytseva, E. L., Doronina, L. P., Molchkov, R. V., Voronkova, I. A., Mitish, V. A., & Tokmakova, A. Y. E. (2014). Effect of negative pressure therapy on repair of soft tissues of the lower extremities in patients with neuropathic and neuroischaemic forms of diabetic foot syndrome. Diabetes mellitus, 17(3), 113-121.

Zemskov, M. A., Khoroshilov, A. A., Il’ina, E. M., & Domnich, O. A. (2011). Peculiarities of changes of immune status in chronic infl ammatory diseases. Vestnik Eksperimental’noi i Klinicheskoi Khirurgii, 4(3), 468-472.

Zimny, S., Schatz, H., & Pfohl, M. (2002). Determinants and estimation of healing times in diabetic foot ulcers. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 16(5), 327-332.



How to Cite

Sergeev, V. A., Glukhov, A. A., Sorokin, A. S., Zhuchkov, S. A., Gorokhov, A. V., & Troshkina, E. N. (2021). Clinical-functional and morphological parameters of purulonecrotic foci healing in diabetic foot syndrome using programmable sanitation technologies. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(3), 260-275.



Peer Review Articles