The Chief Executive Editor and the Editorial Board examine the paper to determine whether it is appropriate for the journal and should be reviewed. If not appropriate, the manuscript is rejected outright.
The Chief Executive Editor sends the article-identifying information having been removed to three, reviewers. Typically, one of these is from the Journal's Editorial Board. Others are specialists in the subject matter represented by the article. The Chief Executive Editor asks them to complete the review in three weeks and encloses two forms: (a) referral form B and (b) Referee's Evaluation (comments) form. Comments to authors are about the appropriateness and adequacy of the theoretical or conceptual framework, literature review, method, results, and discussion. Reviewers often include suggestions for a strengthening of the manuscript. Comments to the Editor are in the nature of the significance of the work and its potential contribution to the literature.
The Chief Executive Editor, in consultation with the Editor-in-Chief, examines the reviews and decides whether to reject the manuscript, invite the author(s) to revise and resubmit the manuscript or seek additional reviews. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board and/or the Editor-in-Chief, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication. In rare instances, the manuscript is accepted with almost no revision. Almost without exception, reviewers' comments (to the author) are forwarded to the author. If a revision is indicated, the Editor provides guidelines for attending to the reviewers' suggestions and perhaps additional advice about revising the manuscript.
The authors decide whether and how to address the reviewers' comments and criticisms and the editor's concerns. The authors submit a revised version of the paper to the Chief Executive Editor along with specific information describing how they have answered' the concerns of the reviewers and the editor.
The Chief Executive Editor sends the revised paper out for review. Typically, at least one of the original reviewers will be asked to examine the article.
When the reviewers have completed their work, the Chief Executive Editor and the Editor-in-Chief examine their comments and decide whether the paper is ready to be published, needs another round of revisions, or should be rejected.
If the decision is to accept, the paper is in the publication and the article should appear in print in approximately three to four months.