Procalcitonin levels differences in preeclampsia and non preeclampsia


  • Nur Istiqamah Fatimah Midwifery Postgraduate School, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Sitti Wahyuni Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Sharvianty Arifuddin Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia


preeclampsia, procalcitonin, track infection, urinary


One of the main complications that cause maternal death is preeclampsia/eclampsia. Activation of the systemic inflammatory response is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Urinary tract infections (UTI) can cause activation of the systemic inflammatory response so that it is considered capable of causing preeclampsia. Procalcitonin is known as a marker of infection and very stable in serum, so it is a promising biomarker in detecting UTI. The investigators intend to investigate the association between UTI and preeclampsia through the exploration of procalcitonin levels in preeclampsia and non-preeclampsia mothers. This study was a cross-sectional method, accident sampling technique. Respondents in this study amounted to 65, preeclampsia criteria were 40, and not preeclampsia was 25. The results showed no relationship between urinary tract infections during pregnancy and preeclampsia P = 0.074. Even so, procalcitonin levels in preeclampsia mothers were found to be higher than mothers without preeclampsia, with a value of P = 0.005. This means that the inflammation that occurs in preeclampsia mothers is not caused by urinary tract infections. It is hoped that further research can be carried out on the relationship between urinary tract infections and preeclampsia by using a larger sample.


Download data is not yet available.


American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2013). Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ task force on hypertension in pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology, 122(5), 1122-1131.

Bellos, I., Pergialiotis, V., Papapanagiotou, A., Loutradis, D., & Daskalakis, G. (2020). Association between serum copeptin levels and preeclampsia risk: A meta-analysis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology.

Birdir, C., Fox, L., Droste, L., Frank, M., Fryze, J., Enekwe, A., ... & Gellhaus, A. (2020). MR-proANP, a cardiovascular biomarker to predict late-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses. Pregnancy Hypertension, 22, 54-58.

Broekhuijsen, K., van Baaren, G. J., Van Pampus, M. G., Ganzevoort, W., Sikkema, J. M., Woiski, M. D., ... & HYPITAT-II study group. (2015). Immediate delivery versus expectant monitoring for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy between 34 and 37 weeks of gestation (HYPITAT-II): an open-label, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 385(9986), 2492-2501.

Chaemsaithong, P., Sahota, D., & Poon, L. C. (2020). First-trimester preeclampsia screening and prediction. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Davies, J. (2015). Procalcitonin. Journal of clinical pathology, 68(9), 675-679.

Do, S. C., Miller, H., Leonard, S. A., Datoc, I. A., Giesen, A. I., Kappagoda, S., ... & Aziz, N. (2021). Lactate and procalcitonin levels in peripartum women with intraamniotic infection. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology MFM, 3(4), 100367.

Dockree, S., Brook, J., James, T., Shine, B., & Vatish, M. (2021). A pregnancy-specific reference interval for procalcitonin. Clinica Chimica Acta, 513, 13-16.

Easter, S. R., Cantonwine, D. E., Zera, C. A., Lim, K. H., Parry, S. I., & McElrath, T. F. (2016). Urinary tract infection during pregnancy, angiogenic factor profiles, and risk of preeclampsia. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 214(3), 387-e1.

Hiremath, R. S., & Basu, A. (2017). Role of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in urinary tract infection diagnosis in adults. International Journal of Advances in Medicine, 4(2), 417.

Jannesari, R., & Kazemi, E. (2017). Level of high sensitive C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in pregnant women with mild and severe preeclampsia. Advanced biomedical research, 6.

Kaduma, J., Seni, J., Chuma, C., Kirita, R., Mujuni, F., Mushi, M. F., ... & Mshana, S. E. (2019). Urinary tract infections and preeclampsia among pregnant women attending two hospitals in Mwanza City, Tanzania: A 1: 2 Matched case-control study. BioMed research international, 2019.

Kemenkes RI. (2018). Hari Hipertensi Dunia 2019?: “Know Your Number, Kendalikan Tekanan Darahmu dengan CERDIK.”’, Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Kumari, N., Dash, K., & Singh, R. (2016). Relationship between Maternal Age and Preeclampsia. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 15(12), 55-7.

Lin, S., Leonard, D., Co, M. A., Mukhopadhyay, D., Giri, B., Perger, L., ... & Uddin, M. N. (2015). Pre-eclampsia has an adverse impact on maternal and fetal health. Translational Research, 165(4), 449-463.

Matwiyoff, G. N., Prahl, J. D., Miller, R. J., Carmichael, J. J., Amundson, D. E., Seda, G., & Daheshia, M. (2012). Immune regulation of procalcitonin: a biomarker and mediator of infection. Inflammation Research, 61(5), 401-409.

Meisner, M. (2014). Update on procalcitonin measurements. Annals of laboratory medicine, 34(4), 263.

Michelim, L., Bosi, G. R., & Comparsi, E. (2016). Urinary tract infection in pregnancy: review of clinical management. J Clin Nephrol Res, 3(1), 1030.

Pinto, F., Suwiyoga, I. K., Widiana, I. G. R., & Yasa, I. W. P. S. (2017). Health behavior and status related to mother's death in Timor-Leste. International Research Journal of Engineering, IT and Scientific Research, 3(4), 57-65.

Prawirohardjo, S. (2014). Ilmu Kebidanan Sarwono Prawirohardjo. Jakarta: PT. Bina Pustaka Sarwono Prawirohardjo.

Redman, C. W., Sargent, I. L., & Taylor, R. N. (2015). Immunology of normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. In Chesley's hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (pp. 161-179). Academic Press.

Rehfeldt, M., Eklund, E., Struck, J., Sparwasser, A., O'Brien, B., Palomaki, G. E., ... & Lambert-Messerlian, G. (2018). Relaxin-2 connecting peptide (pro-RLX2) levels in second-trimester serum samples to predict preeclampsia. Pregnancy hypertension, 11, 124-128.

Shamsi, U., Hatcher, J., Shamsi, A., Zuberi, N., Qadri, Z., & Saleem, S. (2010). A multicentre matched case-control study of risk factors for preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan. BMC women's health, 10(1), 1-7..

Tan, K. H., Tan, S. S., Sze, S. K., Lee, W. K. R., Ng, M. J., & Lim, S. K. (2014). Plasma biomarker discovery in preeclampsia using a novel differential isolation technology for circulating extracellular vesicles. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 211(4), 380-e1.

van Helden, J., & Weiskirchen, R. (2015). Analytical evaluation of the novel soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and placental growth factor assays for the diagnosis of preeclampsia. Clinical biochemistry, 48(16-17), 1113-1119.

World Health Organization. (2018). WHO expert consultation on rabies: third report (Vol. 1012). World Health Organization.

Yalman, M. V., Madendag, Y., Sahin, E., Madendag, I. C., Sahin, M. E., Acmaz, G., ... & Muderris, I. I. (2021). Effect of preeclampsia and its severity on maternal serum NGAL and KIM-1 levels during pregnancy and the post-pregnancy period. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 256, 246-251.

Yan, L., Jin, Y., Hang, H., & Yan, B. (2018). The association between urinary tract infection during pregnancy and preeclampsia: A meta-analysis. Medicine, 97(36).

Zahedkalaei, A. T., Kazemi, M., Zolfaghari, P., Rashidan, M., & Sohrabi, M. B. (2020). Association Between Urinary Tract Infection in the First Trimester and Risk of Preeclampsia: A Case–Control Study. International Journal of Women's Health, 12, 521.



How to Cite

Fatimah, N. I., Wahyuni, S., & Arifuddin, S. (2021). Procalcitonin levels differences in preeclampsia and non preeclampsia. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(2), 71-78.



Peer Review Articles