Differences of heparin binding protein levels in preeclampsian and non preeclampsian women



  • Nurrahma Layuk Midwifery Postgraduate School, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Sitti Wahyuni Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia
  • Sharvianty Arifuddin Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Indonesia


heparin-binding protein, urinary tract infection, preeclampsia


This study aims to the incidence of preeclampsia and determine differences in heparin-binding protein levels in preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic mothers and determine the relationship between urinary tract infections in pregnancy. The research design was cross-sectional on 65 respondents with an accidental sampling technique. The research data were obtained from a questionnaire containing a list of questions given to respondents, measurement of middle urine samples to measure nitrite, leukocytes urine using dipstick method, and to determine heparin binding protein (HBP) levels using the ELISA method in the Hasanuddin University RSP Research Laboratory. The results of the study found there was a difference in the levels of heparin-binding protein in pregnant women without preeclampsia, namely 1.90±0.22 Ng/ml and HBP levels in pregnant women preeclampsia ie 2.39±0.3 Ng/ml. That there was no significant relationship between urinary tract infections (UTI) and the incidence of preeclampsia with p= 0.074. The conclusion in this study is that the levels of heparin-binding protein differ in preeclamptic and non-preeclamptic mothers, the increase in HBP levels in preeclampsia is due to inflammation, the cause is not through UTI. There is no association between urinary tract infections in pregnant women and the incidence of preeclampsia.


Download data is not yet available.


ACOG. (2020). Preeclampsia and Pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Ananth, C. V., Duzyj, C. M., Yadava, S., Schwebel, M., Tita, A. T., & Joseph, K. S. (2019). Changes in the prevalence of chronic hypertension in pregnancy, United States, 1970 to 2010. Hypertension, 74(5), 1089-1095.

Dinkes Sultra. (2017). Profil Kesehatan Propinsi Sulawesi Tenggara 2016. Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara.

Fisher, J., & Linder, A. (2017). Heparin?binding protein: a key player in the pathophysiology of organ dysfunction in sepsis. Journal of internal medicine, 281(6), 562-574.

Foxman, B., Barlow, R., D'Arcy, H., Gillespie, B., & Sobel, J. D. (2000). Urinary tract infection: self-reported incidence and associated costs. Annals of epidemiology, 10(8), 509-515. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(00)00072-7

Gomaa, M. F., Naguib, A. H., Swedan, K. H., & Abdellatif, S. S. (2015). Serum tumor necrosis factor-? level and uterine artery Doppler indices at 11–13 weeks’ gestation for preeclampsia screening in low-risk pregnancies: a prospective observational study. Journal of reproductive immunology, 109, 31-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2015.02.007

Honore, P. M., De Bels, D., Gutierrez, L. B., Redant, S., & Spapen, H. D. (2019). Heparin-binding protein in sepsis: player! predictor! positioning?.

Johnson, S., Liu, B., Kalafat, E., Thilaganathan, B., & Khalil, A. (2020). Maternal and perinatal outcomes of white coat hypertension during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hypertension, 76(1), 157-166.

Kaduma, J., Seni, J., Chuma, C., Kirita, R., Mujuni, F., Mushi, M. F., ... & Mshana, S. E. (2019). Urinary tract infections and preeclampsia among pregnant women attending two hospitals in Mwanza City, Tanzania: A 1: 2 Matched case-control study. BioMed research international, 2019.

Kemenkes. (2018). Info DATIN (Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementrian RI). Kementerian Kesehatan RI, 1–7.

Kett, W. C., Osmond, R. I., Moe, L., Skett, S. E., Kinnear, B. F., & Coombe, D. R. (2003). Avidin is a heparin-binding protein. Affinity, specificity and structural analysis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1620(1-3), 225-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4165(02)00539-1

Kumari, N., Dash, K., & Singh, R. (2016). Relationship between Maternal Age and Preeclampsia. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 15(12), 55-7.

Machano, M. M., & Joho, A. A. (2020). Prevalence and risk factors associated with severe pre-eclampsia among postpartum women in Zanzibar: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-10.

Merenmies, J., Pihlaskari, R., Laitinen, J., Wartiovaara, J., & Rauvala, H. (1991). 30-kDa heparin-binding protein of brain (amphoterin) involved in neurite outgrowth. Amino acid sequence and localization in the filopodia of the advancing plasma membrane. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266(25), 16722-16729. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)55361-8

Michelim, L., Bosi, G. R., & Comparsi, E. (2016). Urinary tract infection in pregnancy: review of clinical management. J Clin Nephrol Res, 3(1), 1030.

Minassian, C., Thomas, S. L., Williams, D. J., Campbell, O., & Smeeth, L. (2013). Acute maternal infection and risk of pre-eclampsia: a population-based case-control study. PloS one, 8(9), e73047.

Mirkovi?, L., Nejkovi?, L., & Mici?, J. (2018). A new pathophysiological concept and new classification of pre-eclampsia. Vojnosanitetski pregled, 75(1), 83-94.

Olczak, M., & W?torek, W. (2002). Structural analysis of N-glycans from human neutrophil azurocidin. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 293(1), 213-219. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00201-2

Pinto, F., Suwiyoga, I. K., Widiana, I. G. R., & Yasa, I. W. P. S. (2017). Health behavior and status related to mother's death in Timor-Leste. International Research Journal of Engineering, IT and Scientific Research, 3(4), 57-65.

Rejali, M., & Ahmadi, S. S. (2019). Prevalence and risk factors of urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Shahrekord, Iran. International Journal of Epidemiologic Research, 6(2), 55-59.

Ronald, A. (2003). The etiology of urinary tract infection: traditional and emerging pathogens. Disease-a-month, 49(2), 71-82. https://doi.org/10.1067/mda.2003.8

Saftlas, A. F., Wang, W., Risch, H., Woolson, R., Hsu, C. D., & Bracken, M. B. (2000). Prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain as risk factors for preeclampsia and transient hypertension. Annals of epidemiology, 10(7), 475. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(00)00167-8

Sattar, N., Bendomir, A., Berry, C., Shepherd, J., Greer, I. A., & Packard, C. J. (1997). Lipoprotein subfraction concentrations in preeclampsia: pathogenic parallels to atherosclerosis. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 89(3), 403-408. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0029-7844(96)00514-5

Sefton, A. M. (2000). The impact of resistance on the management of urinary tract infections. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 16(4), 489-491. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-8579(00)00282-X

Tranquilli, A. L. (2013). Introduction to ISSHP new classification of preeclampsia. Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Women's Cardiovascular Health, 3(2), 58-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2013.04.006

Victoria, A., Dreixler, J., Tung, A., Mueller, A., Heimberger, S., Fazal, A. A., Naseem, H., Lang, R., Kruse, E., Yamat, M., Granger, J. P., Bakrania, B. A., Rodriguez-kovacs, J., & Rana, S. (2021). Long-Term Postpartum Cardiac Function and Its Association With Preeclampsia. Journal of the American Heart Association, 1–9.

Voss, S., Hallström, T., Saleh, M., Burchhardt, G., Pribyl, T., Singh, B., ... & Hammerschmidt, S. (2013). The choline-binding protein PspC of Streptococcus pneumoniae interacts with the C-terminal heparin-binding domain of vitronectin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(22), 15614-15627. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.443507

Wang, Y., Gu, Y., Alexander, J. S., & Lewis, D. F. (2021). Preeclampsia Status Controls Interleukin-6 and Soluble IL-6 Receptor Release from Neutrophils and Endothelial Cells: Relevance to Increased Inflammatory Responses. Pathophysiology, 28(2), 202-211.

Webster, K., Fishburn, S., Maresh, M., Findlay, S. C., & Chappell, L. C. (2019). Diagnosis and management of hypertension in pregnancy: summary of updated NICE guidance. Bmj, 366.

World Health Organization. (2018). Global Health Observatory (GHO): Data Repository. GHO. https://www.who.int/gho/maternal_health/en/

Wu, D. Q., Kan, M. K., Sato, G. H., Okamoto, T., & Sato, J. D. (1991). Characterization and molecular cloning of a putative binding protein for heparin-binding growth factors. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266(25), 16778-16785. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)55368-0

Yan, L., Jin, Y., Hang, H., & Yan, B. (2018). The association between urinary tract infection during pregnancy and preeclampsia: A meta-analysis. Medicine, 97(36).



How to Cite

Layuk, N., Wahyuni, S., & Arifuddin, S. (2021). Differences of heparin binding protein levels in preeclampsian and non preeclampsian women. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(2), 62-70. https://doi.org/10.29332/ijhs.v5n2.1199



Peer Review Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)