Study protocol: relationship between parenting patterns and diet with nutritional status of toddlers during COVID-19 pandemic


  • Syafitriya Ningsih Universitas Aisyiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Djauhar Ismail Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Indriani Universitas Aisyiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia


COVID-19, eating patterns, nutritional status, overnutrition, parenting patterns, undernutrition


COVID-19 impacts the economy, which reduces food shortages and results in increased nutritional problems for children under five is essential. The nutritional problems of children under five are influenced by many factors, including parenting and eating patterns of children under five, which causes the prevalence of overnutrition and undernutrition to increase globally and nationally. This study aims to determine the relationship between parenting and eating patterns with the nutritional status of toddlers using the Mixed Methods research method. The research subjects used were mothers and toddlers. For quantitative analysis, as many as 86 and for qualitative analysis as many as 6 with the criteria of junior high school education and low economic level and domiciled in Yogyakarta.


Download data is not yet available.


Adriani, M., & Kartika, V. (2013). Pola Asuh Makan pada Balita dengan Status Gizi Kurang di Jawa Timur, Jawa Tengah dan Kalimantan Tengah, Tahun 2011. Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan, 16(2 Apr).

Ashakiran, S., & Deepthi, R. (2012). Fast foods and their impact on health. Journal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, 1(2). diakses 21 Oktober 2020

Beck, R. W., Moke, P. S., Turpin, A. H., Ferris III, F. L., SanGiovanni, J. P., Johnson, C. A., ... & Kraker, R. T. (2003). A computerized method of visual acuity testing: adaptation of the early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study testing protocol. American journal of ophthalmology, 135(2), 194-205.

Bhadoria, A., Sahoo, K., Sahoo, B., Choudhury, A., Sufi, N., & Kumar, R. (2015). Childhood obesity: Causes and consequences. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 4(2), 187.

Daniels, L. A. (2019). Feeding Practices and Parenting: A Pathway to Child Health and Family Happiness. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 74(Suppl2).

Drover, J. R., Felius, J., Cheng, C. S., Morale, S. E., Wyatt, L., & Birch, E. E. (2008). Normative pediatric visual acuity using single surrounded HOTV optotypes on the Electronic Visual Acuity Tester following the Amblyopia Treatment Study protocol. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 12(2), 145-149.

Dinkes Kota Yogyakarta. (2019). Profil Kesehatan 2019 Kota Yogyakarta. 107.

Fuchs, N., Bielack, S. S., Epler, D., Bieling, P., Delling, G., Körholz, D., ... & Winkler, K. (1998). Long-term results of the co-operative German–Austrian–Swiss osteosarcoma study group’s protocol COSS-86 of intensive multidrug chemotherapy and surgery for osteosarcoma of the limbs. Annals of Oncology, 9(8), 893-899.

Fekadu, Y., Mesfin, A., Haile, D., & Stoecker, B. J. (2015). Factors associated with nutritional status of infants and young children in Somali Region, Ethiopia: A cross- sectional study Global health. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1–9.

Hackett, K. M., Mukta, U. S., Jalal, C. S. B., & Sellen, D. W. (2015). Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions on infant and young child nutrition and feeding among adolescent girls and young mothers in rural Bangladesh. Maternal and Child Nutrition, 11(2).

Hanandita, W., & Tampubolon, G. (2015). The double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: Social determinants and geographical variations. SSM - Population Health, 1, 16–25.

Herrera Cuenca, M., Proaño, G. V., Blankenship, J., Cano-Gutierrez, C., Chew, S. T. H., Fracassi, P., Keller, H., Venkatesh Mannar, M. G., Mastrilli, V., Milewska, M., & Steiber, A. (2020). Building Global Nutrition Policies in Health Care: Insights for Tackling Malnutrition from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 2019 Global Nutrition Research and Policy Forum. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 120(8).

Kemenkes RI. (2020). Profil Kesehatan Indonesia Tahun 2019. In Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling (Vol. 53, Issue 9). diakses 21 November 2020

Kurtieva, S., Nazarova, J., & Mullajonov, H. (2021). Features of endocrine and immune status in adolescents with vegetative dystonia syndrome. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(2), 118-127.

Kemkes RI. (2018). FactSheet Obesitas Kit Informasi Obesitas (pp. 1–8). diakses 1 Desember 2020

Kurnia, D. (2018). Identifikasi Obesitas Pada Balita Di Posyandu Berbasis Artificial Intelligence. Jurnal Sains Dan Informatika, 4(1), 76–86.

Lim, H., Sukmawati, M., Artana, W. D., Kardana, M., & Putra, P. J. (2021). Validity of neutrophil lymphocyte count ratio in neonatal sepsis. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(2), 53-61.

Lybaws, L., & Renyoet, B. S. (2020). Analisis Peran dan Pengaruh Pelayanan Gizi pada Anak Wasting di Puskesmas dan Posyandu di Masa Pandemi COVID-19. 19(August).

Mu, D., Fern, E., Gastaminza, G., & Fern, L. (2002). Allergic contact dermatitis from mercury antiseptics and derivatives: study protocol of tolerance to intramuscular injections of thimerosal. American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, 13(1), 3-9.

Munawaroh, S. (2015). Pola Asuh Mempengaruhi Status Gizi Balita. Jurnal Keperawatan, 6(1).

Pieters, R., Schrappe, M., De Lorenzo, P., Hann, I., De Rossi, G., Felice, M., ... & Valsecchi, M. G. (2007). A treatment protocol for infants younger than 1 year with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Interfant-99): an observational study and a multicentre randomised trial. The Lancet, 370(9583), 240-250.

Reed, N. S., Mangioni, C., Malmström, H., Scarfone, G., Poveda, A., Pecorelli, S., ... & Vermorken, J. B. (2008). Phase III randomised study to evaluate the role of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine sarcomas stages I and II: an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Gynaecological Cancer Group Study (protocol 55874). European Journal of Cancer, 44(6), 808-818.

Robinet, G., Thomas, P., Breton, J. L., Lena, H., Gouva, S., Dabouis, G., ... & Mornex, F. (2001). Results of a phase III study of early versus delayed whole brain radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin and vinorelbine combination in inoperable brain metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer: Groupe Francais de Pneumo-Cancerologie (GFPC) Protocol 95-1. Annals of Oncology, 12(1), 59-67.

Shekar, M., Hyder, Z., Subandoro, A., Dayton Eberwein, J., Pereira, A., & Akuoku, J. K. (2016). An Investment Framework for Nutrition in Uganda.

Sugeng Arianto. (2021). Badan Pusat Statistik Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Tahun 2020. di akses 15 mei 2021

Suharmanto, S., Supriatna, L. D., Wardani, D. W. S. R., & Nadrati, B. (2021). Kajian Status Gizi Balita Berdasarkan Pola Asuh dan Dukungan Keluarga. Jurnal Kesehatan, 12(1), 10.

Talks, J. S., Lotery, A. J., Ghanchi, F., Sivaprasad, S., Johnston, R. L., Patel, N., ... & Mushtaq, B. (2016). First-year visual acuity outcomes of providing aflibercept according to the VIEW study protocol for age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology, 123(2), 337-343.

UNICEF. (2016). Sebuah Gambaran: SDG dan Anak-Anak di Indonesia. Snapshot.pdf diakses 8 Desember 2020

UNPD. (2020). Beyond Recovery: Towards 2030. diakses 19 Desember 2020

Vis, C., Kleiboer, A., Prior, R., Bønes, E., Cavallo, M., Clark, S. A., ... & Riper, H. (2015). Implementing and up-scaling evidence-based eMental health in Europe: the study protocol for the MasterMind project. Internet Interventions, 2(4), 399-409.

World Health Organization. (2020). WHO Director-General’s remaks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11 february 2020.



How to Cite

Ningsih, S., Ismail, D., & Indriani, I. (2021). Study protocol: relationship between parenting patterns and diet with nutritional status of toddlers during COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Health Sciences, 5(2), 128-134.



Peer Review Articles